The electrical transformers are complex in nature. They require the synergy of a number of systems and regular maintenance for operating the transformers at full capacity. But the question that comes up in the mind is why do the transformers sometimes fail? When we talk about determining the weak link that caused the failure in a transformer isn’t easy. There are other factors too that might cause failure and that includes electrical defaults, lightning or even human error. But now as the maintenance standards have improved, thus, it can help in preventing the failures and detecting them before any damage becomes permanent in nature.
The top transformer manufacturers in India listed the below-mentioned reasons for failure of transformers which are as follows:
- Aging of the transformers: While judging the cause of failure of the transformer, age is the most important factor that is listed down. If the transformer is old for more than 15 to 20 years, then the damage may be due to wear and tear.
- Insulation degradation: Another reason for the failure of the distribution transformer is the high temperature. Generally, the high temperature of the transformer weakens the insulation system. The weakening of the system happens at a rapid speed and it causes overload. Overloading causes overheating and this causes cracks in the insulation. If we conduct regular tests and maintenance, then it will help us in detecting the issue at an early stage.
- Moisture absorption: Next reason that can contribute towards the failure in a transformer is moisture in the transformer oil. For detecting this issue, the dissolved gas analysis should be performed regularly so that it can be judged out whether the oil is contaminated with gas or moisture. It further judges the type and amount of contamination and would help in determining the type of fault.
- Electrical or mechanical failure: Most of the times, there are damages in the parts or physical displacement of the transformer. This mostly happens due to a number of reasons and this includes normal faults and also the seismic activities. By taking early preventive and maintenance measures can help you in preventing mechanical failures. The early diagnosis tests involve Sweet Frequency Response Testing and induced voltage testing. If the partial discharge is present at the time of voltage testing, then it shows that there is some sort of mechanical failure.
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